According to the great historian Herodotus in the 5th Century B.C. Herodotus’ sources suggest that the city of Kourion near what is today, Limassol, was founded by the Achaean settlers from Argos. He started his arguments the discovery of the late Bronze Age settlement which is several kilometers away from the site of the Hellenic City of Kourin with the indication of pottery and architecture left by the Mycenaean settlers so there a hypothesis that there was an existing population in Cyprus in the twelfth century BC.
Important to mention the king of Kourion in Cyprus was mention in Egypt in the period of Pharaoh Ramses III “1186-55 B.C.” recorded on an inscription.
The second source material is mention of Cypriot history that the nation was under the Assyrian rule. There was a stele found in 1845 found near an Ancient city called kiton near modern day Larnaka which commemorates the victory of the King Sargon II ” 721-05.BC” in what was in 709.BC seven kings in the land of IA’. the areas of Iadnana or Atnana. The Assyrian name for Cyprus is Land of Ia.
There were ten kingdoms listen on the prism of Esarhaddon in 673-2BC which has been identified as Soloi, Paphos, Salamis, Amathus, Kourion and Kition on the coast, and Tamassos, Ledrai, Idalion and Chytrioi…
Cyprus was able to gain independence after 627.BC from the death of Ashurbanipal was the last Assyrian King. The cemeteries from this time period was chiefly rock-cut tombs.
There a rock-cut tombs at Tamassos built in about 600.BC with wooden houses, the Phoenician influences show was the pillars are.
The main deity in ancient cyprus was the Great Goddess known as Isthar from Assyro-Babylonian and the Phoenician Astarte which later translated by the Greek Name to Aphrodite.
Homer said she was called “the Cypriote” while the Paphian inscripited call her the “The Queen”.
The pictures of Aphrodite appear to be on some coins of Salamis as well which shows she demonstrated her as a cult and had a wider regional influence than first thought. In cooperation to this, the King of Paphos was the High priest of Aphrodite.
There was Animal sacrifices which are attested on terracotta-toctives. The sanctuary of Ayia Irini contained over 2,000 figurines.
Ancient Egyptian era in Cyprus was conquered by Egypt under the ruler of Amasis II. This was a short period of Egyptian rule but the main influence that was left behind was, art, sculpture, were there were rigidity and dresses of the Egyptian style can be seen. The later period the Egyptian style was left behind and took on the Greek prototypes.
The statue depiction had often shown a mixed culture of Egyptian and Greek influences. In certain ceramics that has been recovered in Cyprus there has been influencing even from Ancient Crete. The meant in ancient Cyprus often ten to wear Egyptian wigs and Assyrians style beards. Whilst there Amours and a dressed code was a western Asiatic element.
Sometime after from Ancient Egypt in the year of 525.BC the Persian from Achaemenid empire conquered Cyprus. Under the Persians, the King of Cyprus was able to regain there independence only by paying tribute to the Overlord. The Kingdoms of Cyprus were able to strike there own coin for their usage in the late sixth century.BC. There was a catch to this the coins that were minted by the Cyprus King had to have there Overlord portraited on the coin.
The towns in Cyprus during this time was fortified with mudbricks walls on top of stone foundation with rectangular bastions. The houses also was made out of mud-briiicks. Phoenician town of Carpasia which near Rizokarpasso known as (Dipkarpaz) in Turkish, they had houses built of rubble masonry with square stone blocks which formed the corners. Sanctuaries and temples was built in Phoenician style.
There was a closes connection with the Greece because there was cultural influences on Cyprus because of the production of some very important sculpture. The archaic Greek artwork attractive smile on the face found many Cypriot pieces during the dates of 525-475BC. Cyprus pottery regain is local influences even though there are still some imported Greek pottery.
One of the most important par take-ups of the Kings of Cyprus did for the Persian that was payment of tributes and supplies of arms and ship for there foreign campaigns. When Xerxes in 480.BC invade Greece Cyprus contributed 150 ships to help Persian military expedition.