The Ottoman Empire was a  Multi-cultural , multi-national empire , which was a transcontinental empire, from the year of 1299 when the Ottoman dynasty and empire was formed and lasted until its fall in 1922. It was a empire which spanned over 600 years whose borders reached from south Eastern Europe to Middle East and North Africa on three continents. The Ottomans were a superior world power through the 1500s and 1600s which became a threat to European politics and showed great tolerance to different faiths.

Boundaries of the Ottoman Empire

Figure one ( google images)

Ertugul gazi bey the father of Osman bey and the leader of the Kayi clan and of the Oghuz Turks had set the foundations of the Ottoman Empire and planned for his son to be the founder of a dynasty.

Osman bey “Osman Gazi”: Was the founder of the Ottoman Empire in reference of his name, become the founder of the dynasty of the ‘House of Osman’ or known as the Ottoman Empire or in the Turkish language Osmanli: He consolidated the founding state of the Ottoman Empire and started establishing his own principalities. Because the Kayi tribe had to flee from the mongols they had fled to the new Empire and they were safe in Anatolia.

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Figure two ( google images)

Osman’s dream was a very important mythological symbolism in the Ottoman story of founding a world empire. With this the first capital of the Ottoman Empire was “Sogut” and began expanding its borders.

Orhan gazi expanded the empire rapidly and made a new capital, which was very important in expanding the empire into the European borders. Orhan gazi began to start establishing important economical, military and religious systems within the Ottoman Empires state governance. These new systems also led to the establishing of civil institutions Orhan gazi also set up an interesting corps of elite soldiers known as the elite corps “Janissaries”. This was a system which was known tax levy when every ten or so years they used to go to the neighboring states of Balkans and ask for children for the private Ottoman army a “private army” of the Ottoman sultan, even though this opened up many opportunities for the candidates as they went through the ranks, they could eventually even become Grand Vizer .

Over the centuries there was great expansion into Anatolia and into Balkans where they created strongholds and took over many of the former lands of the Byzantine Empire which was vital for the Ottoman growth, from there the Ottoman tweaked their “System” of government, economical and political aspects that changed the Ottomans.

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Figure three and four ( google images)

The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the I also known as the “Conqueror” who conquered Constantinople in the year of 1453, 29th may with this fall of the capital the Byzantine Empire followed this was the Eastern Roman Empire. This sent shock waves to the rest of Europe, in which a quote written “Rome is truly fallen”. The conquest of Constantinople was an immense victory and the Sultan then changed the name to “Istanbul” which he made his imperial capital and power house of the Empire. The Sultan did this by making a palace which was known as “Top Kapi Palace, this was a house within a house, with divans these were the chairs of the elites and an important government building. Then there was more conquest in Anatolia and an attempt to gain territory in Southern Europe this further expanded the borders. The important change with trade routes of the silk road created a strong economical center for the Ottomans.

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Figure five and six ( google images )

Selim I who was also known as the “Grim” even though his reign was short lived, 1512 to 1520 his reign was notable because of his major expansion and ambitious battles in the Middle East. Particular to his vital conquest between the years of 1516-1517 A.D. with which he had taken over the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, including places such as Sham , Hejaz, Thimah and Egypt itself. Before his reign there was a major conquest in Balkans and in Anatolia, but upon Selim’s death the Ottoman Empire spanned almost 1 billion acres which is about 4 million square kilometers), having tripled in size during Selim’s reign.


EmperorSuleiman (5) John_Sigismund_of_Hungary_with_Suleiman_the_Magnificient_in_1556

Figure seven and eight ( google images)

The greatest of the Ottoman Rulers who was known as Suleiman the Magnificent was known to the west and in the east as “Kanuni” this meant the law giver to the west, he was the tenth and longest reigning Ottoman Sultan, he ruled from 1520- until his death 1566. Upon his administration there was between 20-30 Millon people underneath his rule. He was the most powerful and prominent monarch during the 16 century the reason was because he brought the Ottoman Empire to its highest military, political and economic power. Suleiman lead the Ottoman armies himself and he conquered strongholds of Belgrade and Rhodes as well most of Hungary, but his conquest was checked by Vienna “Siege of Vienna in 1529”. In his conquests he annexed much of the middle east and in major conflicts against Persian Safavids, but his maritime strength was unequaled, the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman controlled lands from North Africa to Algeria, < the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas of Mediterranean, Red Sea, through out Persian Gulf.

The legacy of Suleiman, instituted many new major legislative changes regarding society, taxation, criminal law and education. His important laws for canonical law which was “Kanuns” was fixed upon the empire for many centuries after, under his rule the Ottoman Empire was in its golden age for artistry, literacy and architectural development.

The legacy of the Ottoman Empire there were many great moments of the empire such as the cultural development conquest and the “communities” based upon the empire “everyone has there own perception of the Ottomans . “the good, the bad and the Ugly “, even though there were many great and bad things that happened throughout the empire. Even though it was a unique empire with many religions, including Jews, Christians and Muslims, they lived in relative peace for a certain time as there was great management of people. There was many cultural achievements and artistic development through, the Ottoman Scripture and writers such as the famous Evliya Celebi or even the map maker known as Piri Reis there are many Important stories to tell. By the end of the Ottoman era they was known as the Sick many of Europe.